Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease (dermatosis) is not fully understood etiology, with a tendency to recur. Causes, symptoms and methods of treatment of psoriasis is discussed in the article below. This disease is characterized by accelerated and enhanced formation of cells in the top layer of skin, persistent inflammation and impaired properties of the epithelial cells of the skin. In addition to the epidermis affects the internal organs and systems of the body. Dermatosis is also known as psoriasisvulgaris (psoriasis).
Psoriasis is more common among young people, the debut of the typically occurs 10-20 years of age. But there are cases when the symptoms and treatment of psoriasis was noted in infants and the elderly. The disease occurs worldwide and has no clear dependence on latitude, racial or climatic conditions of the habitat. The prevalence of dermatosis varies in the range of 0.1-3%. In the post-Soviet space countries recorded approximately 1% of cases.
Equally often this cutaneous pathology sick men and women.
Up to the present time not established the true cause of the disease.There are several factors leading to the emergence of the disease:
- Heredity. According to the latest scientific psoriasis relates to certain diseases with dominant transmission.
- Violation of lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism. If you suspect psoriasis quite often appears to change these profiles in the blood that contributes to the development of cardiovascular pathology, endocrine dysfunction and metabolic syndrome.
- The presence of chronic infectious focus in the body. In the study of psoriatic plaques often reveals a streptococcal flora. On the occurrence of genetic abnormalities may influence viral and bacterial infections, such as tonsillitis, flu.
- The failure of the immune system. Impaired regulation of populations of T-lymphocytes, increase of circulating immune complexes and an increase in titers of antibodies to DNA lead to autoimmune reactions in the epithelial cells of the skin.
Despite the fact that the causes of psoriasis are very different, this disease is considered a genetic systemic disease with a propensity for inheritance and affects the internal organs and systems.
The main element of psoriasis are papules - flat elevation above the skin level of reddish bluish or pink color with a silvery flaky surface with horns.
Fresh eruptions have a more saturated color, older with time pale. They can be sporadic or carry the character of the drain - in any case, it will be symptoms of psoriasis.
At once the papules appear as a single point of efflorescence, which will eventually increase in size and turn into psoriatic plaques of various shapes. In one patient it is possible to notice elements of lesions at different stages of their development.
There symmetrical lesions, but there are exceptions depending on, what were the causes of psoriasis. Most often affects the surface of the upper and lower extremities which are bent and unbent, large joints, but the disease can affect any part of the body, including the scalp and nails. Quite often there is a bone and joint disease of psoriatic arthropathy. Its prevalence is approximately 15% of all cases of psoriasis.
Skin rashes, which are the main symptom of psoriasis, there are quite a long time, but most of the period of aggravation replaced remission with no new lesions. For the exacerbation of psoriasis are typical of the cold season, but the seasonality may change.
For the differentiation of the disease there are several methods and attributes (psoriatic triad):
The phenomenon stearin spot occurs when psoriatic scraping element with a sharp object. During this formed many white-silver scales that mimic the flakes of stearine.
With further manipulation appears terminal psoriatic film - moist and glossy surface.
The next stage is the phenomenon of blood dew, which on the bare surface of the wound acts as a drip bleeding.
Psoriatic process can be divided into several clinical stages of the pathology based on the severity of the disease:
- A progressing stage. Fresh rashes are very often formed on the spot of trauma to the skin (bite, scratching, the action of chemicals, traumatic injury). Usually 3-7 days from the moment of the traumatic impact it is possible to identify the emergence of new elements. Notes reinforced marginal increase in old papules, growing and merging plaques. Well defined psoriatic triad. Patients concerned about the obvious symptoms of psoriasis of the skin - intense itching, feeling of dryness and tightness of the skin.
- Stationary phase. New elements of rash are almost there, there is no growth. Using existing nodes of the active surface peeling. Itching is less pronounced or absent.
- Stage of paralysis. Psoriatic plaques are pale and flattened. Goes itching. Edges psoriatic lesions appears on the rim of depigmentation. The activity of the inflammatory process is reduced. Begins remission, which is more typical of the warm season.
The exacerbation of the process can cause multiple factors:
- Exposure to high or low temperatures.
- A lot of stress and emotional instability.
- The worsening or the occurrence of other diseases.
- The intake of alcohol and strong errors in diet.
When precisely defined the causes and treatment of psoriasis is conducted according to the appropriate techniques, positive dynamics will not be forthcoming.
Clinical interest disease psoriasis is in the period of the advanced stage in which there is the height of the disease and active eruption.
Also klassificeret disease severity and distinguish the two forms.Simple or psoriasis vulgaris has several varieties depending on the shape and localization elements:
- on the palms and soles. Most often, the cause of this illness is related to employment and are observed in people performing intense physical activity. This form of the disease is isolated and affects only the hands and feet. Rashes are in the form of rounded plaques, often painful cracks in them. Except for the skin of feet and hands, often affects the nail plate, marked degenerative changes, deformation, color change, onycholysis.
- Seborrheic. The primary lesion of psoriasis is on the scalp. Further, the pathological process may spread to the face, neck, back and chest. More common in people prone to oily seborrhea and with metabolic disorders of metabolic processes.
- Teardrop-shaped. This species is distributed throughout the body. Psoriatic elements of small size (4-5 mm) are not affected by the drain.
- Folded. Lesions are located in the skin folds – armpits, the genitals in women under the Breasts, in the umbilical depression, between the buttocks and perineum. Elements of the rash of bright red color, virtually no flakes, have clear borders and a smooth, slightly wet surface. This form often affects the elderly and infants, as well as patients with diabetes mellitus. In children dermatosis tends to adhesion plaques, forming huge pockets. Sometimes papules on the genitals - these are the only signs of psoriasis. In this case it is necessary to distinguish them from lesions in other diseases.
- Warts. They are more prone to people with excess body weight. Typically occurs in the gluteal and lumbar region with long-term progression of psoriasis. Can be transformed from other form under the influence of microbial agent: pyoderma or viral flora. The lesions of dermatosis with strong moist and bright inflammation, covered with yellow-gray crust. Over time, the process ends deep infiltration and growths warts.
The second form - severe psoriasis, which in turn has several variants of the disease:
- The most dangerous. This variant of psoriasis occurs under the influence of various endogenous precipitating factors: stress, excessive sun exposure, corticosteroid therapy, but most often the cause cannot be established. Patients noted the allergic Hyper-reaction, and inhibition of immunological parameters, affects the internal organs. When there are symptoms and causes of psoriasis, the skin of the entire body bloodshot, with purple hues and abundant destruction of a different nature. Throughout the body the symptoms are not the same. Patients complain of weakness and malaise. There is an increase of lymph nodes, dystrophic nail involvement, an intensive hair loss. When protracted course, the disease provokes an imbalance of metabolic processes in the body, problems in the cardiovascular system and kidneys.
- Psoriatic arthritis. Along with papular rash in these patients occurs disorders of the joints. Disease are more susceptible to men young and middle age, pathology scant characteristic clinical symptoms and a clear manifestation on x-ray. This is the most difficult and complicated form of psoriasis, which leads to disability, and in some cases fatal. Affected limbs according to the type of arthritis, the small joints of the hands and feet, the spine. Articular manifestations occur in about 4-6 years from the onset of the disease, sometimes simultaneously with skin eruptions. The x-rays are visualized foci of osteoporosis, narrowing of the joint space, the appearance of osteophytes.
- Pustular. This type of dermatosis is divided into two types: simple and General. In the simple type of pustular psoriasis on feet and palms appear symmetric rashes, pustules, erythematous skin with this body can also be papular elements. The General shape of the patient's condition is severe, there is fever, weakness and leukocytosis. Massive rash across the body in the form of a special diffuse bright red lesions and small papules, forming a brownish-yellow crust. This type of dermatitis develops secondarily and has a tendency to degenerate, ending in death. Therefore, the symptoms, causes and treatment of psoriasis should be kept under strict medical supervision.In addition to the main types of psoriasis, there are many forms and atypical movements of the process.
When the disease psoriasis and the choice of treatment take into account many factors. But always approach to treatment of complex disease.All patients with psoriasis are recommended to improve your eating habits:
- A diet balanced in protein, fats and carbohydrates.
- To eat more fruits and vegetables, especially in the family Solanaceae.
- Avoid foods with preservatives and flavor additives, fast food.
- To abandon admission of alcohol and strong tea and coffee.
- You need to try to avoid stressful situations, more to relax and to sleep properly.
Depending on the causes of psoriasis, type and severity sure drug therapy is prescribed.For mild severity of the disease usually prescribe these groups of drugs of basic therapy:
- Drugs that reduce vascular permeability, antihistamines.
- Sedatives and tranquilizers.
- Detoxification drugs for internal administration, and plasma substitutes.
- Ointments with corticosteroids, NSAIDs, tar, etc.
With moderate and severe course of the disease, in addition to the basic therapy applied:
- Corticosteroids in the form of tablets and injections.
- The cytostatics.
- The immunomodulators.
Effective treatment of psoriasis involves the widespread use of methods of physical therapy effects, in particular, selective photochemotherapy and phototherapy (a complex effect of UV rays broad spectrum of the photosensitizer). Healing with photochemotherapy gives excellent results.
Selective phototherapy with simultaneous application of vitamin A has shown good results for treatment of dermatosis mild. Apparatus for carrying out the procedure compact, you can use them to treat psoriasis at home.
Running severe forms of the disease can lead to malfunction of internal organs: liver, kidneys, cardiovascular system, severe metabolic disorders.
Psoriatic arthritis due to degenerative changes in the bone system is fraught with dislocations, subluxations and fractures. This type of dermatosis is often leads to disability.
The General forms of psoriasis are rapidly progressing and may lead to death. Therefore, even slight symptoms of psoriasis of the skin should not be left without attention as soon as possible to consult a doctor.
Regardless of which noted the symptoms and causes of psoriasis, all actions aimed at the normalization of diet, routine and rest. Given the hereditary transmission of psoriasis is a child to monitor their health, to undergo medical checkups, eat well, and avoid stress.
Because this illness affects the liver, in the preventive purposes should be excluded from the diet citrus fruits, sweets, smoked and fried foods, canned foods, prepared foods, etc.
In the period of remission of active process it is recommended that a Spa treatment, occupation physical therapy, massage.